Thomas E. Jeffrey Theresa M. Collins
Lisa Gitelman Gregory Field
Gregory Jankunis    Aldo E. Salerno
David W. Hutchings    Karen A. Detig
Leslie Fields Lorie Stock

Robert Rosenberg
Director and Editor

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey
National Park Service, Edison National Historic Site
New Jersey Historical Commission
Smithsonian Institution

University Publications of America
An Imprint of CIS
4520 East-West Highway · Bethesda, Maryland 20814-3389


A project of the scale and complexity of the Thomas A. Edison Papers can only be successful through the encouragement, cooperative endeavor, and support of many individuals and organizations. The editors of the Edison Papers are fortunate to have the strong backing of the project's Sponsors: Rutgers, The State University; the National Park Service; the New Jersey Historical Commission; and the Smithsonian Institution. Representatives of the sponsoring institutions who have given support and direction to the project include: from Rutgers University, President Francis L. Lawrence, Vice-President Joseph J. Seneca, Dean Richard F. Foley, and History Department Chair David Oshinsky; from the National Park Service's Northeast Region, Regional Director Marie Rust and Museum Services Chief John Maounis; from the National Park Service's Edison National Historic Site, Superintendent Maryanne Gerbauckas, Assistant Superintendent Theresa Jung, and Supervisory Museum Curator Roger Durham; from the Smithsonian Institution, Curator Bernard S. Finn and Department Chair Arthur P. Molella; and from the New Jersey Historical Commission, Historian Howard L. Green. In addition, the editors are indebted to numerous former members of the Board of Sponsors, including Rudolph M. Bell, John Chambers, Kenneth Chandler, Ziva Galili, George Tselos, and Nancy Waters.

The preparation of this edition was made possible through support from Rutgers University, the National Park Service, public and private foundations, private corporations, and individuals—as acknowledged in Financial Contributors. Especially notable were grants from the Collaborative Research Program at the National Endowment for the Humanities; the National Historical Publications and Records Commission; the Charles Edison Fund of Newark, New Jersey; the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation of New York City; and the National Trust for the Humanities. The editors appreciate the interest and support of many program officers and trustees, especially Douglas M. Arnold, Margot Backas, Roger Bruns, Timothy Connelly, Mary Giunta, Kathryn A. Jacob, Dan Jones, John P. Keegan, Ann Newhall, Nancy Sahli, Richard N. Sheldon, Ralph E. Gomory, Doron Weber, Albert J. Beveridge III, and Thomas L. Morrissey. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this publication are solely those of the editors and do not necessarily reflect the views of any of the above federal foundations or agencies, the United States Government, or any other financial contributor.

Within the institutional settings for the two offices of the Edison Papers, many individuals have contributed either directly or indirectly. At the Edison National Historic Site—where all of the documents contained in Part IV are located—archivists Edward Wirth and Leonard DeGraaf have played an important role in creating the various record groups on which this edition is based. Archivist Douglas Tarr and former chief archivist George Tselos have also provided important services to the project. Other present and former members of the archives processing staff who have assisted include John Attanasio, Henry Brown, Kathryn Bryan, Thomas and May Crooke, Todd Daniels-Howell, Robert Engel, James Fox, Rekha Gandhi, Alan Ginsburg, Marilyn Gisser, Steven Higgins, Emilie Jeanneney, Rebecca Johnson, John-Paul Richiuso, Madeline Rogers, Douglas Sterling, and Steven Ziolkowski. Others at the Edison National Historic Site have contributed in a variety of capacities, including Clarence Askew, Donna Baumgaertner, Linda Deveau, Jerry Fabris, Marilyn Kyles, Charles Magale, Claudia Mosquera, Beth Ryan, Gregory Schmidl, and Karen Sloat-Olsen.

Many associates at Rutgers University have contributed significantly to the Edison Papers. The editors are appreciative of the efforts of colleagues in the History Department and the IEEE History Center, especially Philip Scranton, James W. Reed, Rudy Bell, Susan Schrepfer, Philip J. Pauly, Michael Adas, Michael Geselowitz, William Aspray, and Richard L. McCormick; and members of the Rutgers University Libraries, notably Ruth Simmons, Ronald L. Becker, Jeanne Boyle, Peggy Weniger, and Patricia Ann Piermatti.

The support of the Rutgers University administration has encouraged the editors and facilitated their work. The staff of the project especially thank Joseph J. Seneca, Jean Ambrose, Beckman Rich, Richard M. Norman, Nancy Winterbauer, Donald B. Edwards, William W. Owens, Jr., Peter Klein, Joseph A. Potenza, John S. Salapatas, Karen Stubaus, Barbara Lemanski, Barry Qualls, Barbara J. Callaway, Andrew B. Rudczynski, David A. Rumbo, Bruce Newman, Richard Lloyd, Michael W. Carroll, Ronald Thompson, Bruce Fehn, Joseph M. Harrigan, and Cynthia Lydia Jucks; also Sameerah Diaab Allen, Irma Lucy Cardinale, Susan Cosentino, Maureen Cox, Patty Deitsch, Tricia Downey, Judith A. Garelick, Karen Hillman, Jacquelyn Hlavsa, Joan Hozeny, Kathy Janovsky, Rita Keating, Barbara Kovac, Patricia Lashomb, Brenda Lewis, Elma Lockhart, Ann Martin, Amanda Nowicki, Kerry Peluso, Bill Richardson, Sonia Robell, Sandra Russell, Joan Sejeck, Maureen Thompson-Siegel, Alfrieda Pittman Watson, and Chris Zraly. For their help during some trying times, particular gratitude is due Michael Quinlan, Maureen Modica, Lillian Robbins, Marianne Gaunt, Lynn Mullins, Jacqueline Adams, Kathleen Johnson, Dan Morgenstern, and Esther Smith.

The Edison Papers is fortunate to have University Publications of America (now an imprint of the Congressional Information Service) as publisher for this microfilm edition. The staff of CIS have responded well to the needs of this unusually complex microfilm edition. Especially notable in their effort for Part IV are Paul Kesaris, CIS Senior Vice President, and Norma Wark, UPA Managing Editor; William Idol, Director of Operations, CIS Manufacturing; Lin Brown, Manager, CIS Creative Services; and camera operators Gloria Robinson, Raymon Lising, and Sandra Bohnke.

Numerous other individuals have also contributed to Part IV of the microfilm edition. Charles Musser has again provided counsel regarding Edison's work on motion pictures. Others who have assisted with their specialized knowledge include David Heitz, Charles Hummel, Allen Koenigsburg, Leslie H. Marietta, Peter Martland, Richard H. Schallenberg, Janet Staiger, and Raymond Wile.

A special debt of gratitude is owed to Reese V. Jenkins, who served as director and editor of the Edison Papers from its inception in 1978 until 1995, and to whom this publication is dedicated.

The editors of the Edison Papers conclude their acknowledgments—as always—with a special note of appreciation for two longtime members of the staff whose names do not appear on the title page but who are absolutely central to the work of this project. Helen Endick and Grace Kurkowski, respectively Assistant to the Director and Secretary, are broadly talented individuals. They are integral to all aspects of the project's work, and their good judgment and devotion have earned them the appreciation and trust of every editor past and present.